Contracts 2022

2021 exam

2015 exam


This website is the syllabus.

Learning outcomes: To acquire a detailed knowledge of the black letter law of contracts and the ability to use that knowledge in problem-solving analytical reasoning.

Important notices

Access the tutorial website.



The Basics of the Bargain Theory

August 23

Reading: Dougherty v. Salt

Tutorial: Consideration 1

Case tutorial: Dougherty v. Salt

PowerPoint: Consideration Basics Additional class hypotheticals
Voice over PowerPoint: consideration flow chart Download consideration flow chart

August 25

Nominal Consideration

Reading: Schnell v. Nell

Case tutorial: Schnell v. Nell

Tutorial: Consideration 2

Reading: Linder v. Mid-Continent

PowerPoint: Nominal Consideration

August 26

Illusory Promises

Reading:In Re Zappos

Case tutorial: In re Zappos

Reading: Wickham v. Farmers' Lumber

Case tutorial: Wickham v. Farmers' Lumber

The Implied Promise Solution

Tutorial: Consideration 3

Reading: Wood v. Lucy Lady Duff-Gordon

Case tutorial: Wood v. Lucy, Lady Duff-Gordon

PowerPoint: Illusory Promises Hypotheticals

August 30

Reading: Laclede Gas Co. v. Amoco

Case tutorial: Laclede Gas Co. v. Amoco

PowerPoint: UCC 2-306 and Laclede

Summary of modern law

The Preexisting Duty Rule

Tutorial: Consideration 4

September 1

Reading: De Cicco v. Schweizer

Case tutorial: De Cicco v. Schweizer

Reading: Lingenfelder v. Wainwright

Case tutorial: Lingenfelder v. Wainwright

PowerPoint: Preexisting duty rule

September 2

Reading: Angel v. Murray

Case tutorial: Angel v. Murray

PowerPoint: Angel v. Murray

September 6

Giving Up a Legal Claim as Consideration

With the exception of some brief comments, I will leave this topic mostly to the tutorials.

Tutorial: Consideration 5

Reading: Springstead v. Nees

Case tutorial: Springstead v. Nees

Reading: Mullen v. Hawkins

Flowchart: Giving up a claim
Flowchart: Debt settlement
PowerPoint: Debts and claims

Promissory Estoppel

tutorial: Consideration 6

Reading: Central London Property Trust v. High Trees House

Case tutorial: Central London Property Trust v. High Trees House

PowerPoint: Promissory Estoppel

Moral Obligation as Consideration

Tutorials: Consideration 7

Reading: Webb v. McGowin

PowerPoint: Moral obligaton as consideration

September 8

The Old Law on Benefit and Detriment as Consideration

Reading: Hammer v. Sidway

Benefit Detriment PowerPoint


The Objective Intent Test

Reading: Embry v. Hargardine-McKittrick

Case tutorial: Embry v. Hargardine-McKittrick

September 9


The Objective Intent Test

Reading: Embry v. Hargardine-McKittrick

Case tutorial: Embry v. Hargardine-McKittrick

tutorials: Interpretation 1, Interpretation 2

Download interpretation flow chart
Objective Intent Test PowerPoint Power to the People Hypothetical

September 13

The Hypothetical Intent Test

PowerPoint: Ambiguity

Tutorials: Interpretation 3,

Reading: Spaulding v. Morse

Case tutorial: Spaulding v. Morse

Hypothetical Intent Test PowerPoint

September 15

Other Approaches to Ambiguity

Tutorials: Interpretation 4, Interpretation 5

Reading: Berwick and Smith v. Salem

PowerPoint: Trade usage and Restatement 201
PowerPoint: Review questions--consideration and intepretation

September 16


The Expectation Measure

Basic requirement

Tutorial: Remedies 1

Reading: Hawkins v. McGee

Case tutorial: Hawkins v. McGee

PowerPoint: The expectation measure of damages
Sample exam question

September 20

The Duty to Mitigate

Reading:Rockingham Cty. v. Luten Bridge

Case tutorial: Rockingham Cty. v. Luten Bridge

Tutorials: Remedies 2

Mitigation PowerPoint
Longer hypothetical
Sowlefully yours

Hawkins, Tony, Luten Bridge PowerPoint

September 22


Tutorials: Remedies 3

Remedies 4

Reading: Hadley v. Baxendale

Case tutorial: Hadley v. Baxendale

Doctrinal Foreseeability PowerPoint

September 23

Foreseeability: Information and control
Foreseeability information and control PowerPoint

September 27

Reading: EVRA v. Swiss Bank

Case tutorial: EVRA v. Swiss Bank

EVRA PowerPoint

Review PowerPoint

Proving Damages

Reading: Rambola v. Cosindas

Tutorial: Remedies 5

Proof requirement PowerPoint
Longer hypotheticals
Ed and Sally

September 29

UCC: Seller Breach, Buyer Damages

Tutorials: Seller Breach I

Seller Breach II

UCC buyer's damages: examples

UCC sections: 2-712, 2-713, 2-714

September 30

UCC: Buyer Breach, Seller Damages

Reading: Neri v. Retail Marine

Tutorials: Buyer Breach I, Buyer Breach II

UCC seller's damages: examples
UCC sections: 2-706, 2-708

October 4

Reliance Damages

Tutorial: Remedies 6

Reading: Security Stove v. American Railway Express

Case tutorial: Security Stove v. American Railway Express

Reliance Damages PowerPoint

October 6

Liquidated Damages

Tutorial: Remedies 7

Tutorial: Remedies 8

Reading:Truck Rent-A-Center v. Puritan Farms

PowerPoint: Liquidated damages
Extended hypothetical

October 7

Specific performance

Tutorial: Remedies 12

Reading: Laclede v. Amoco

Specific performance PowerPoint
Laclede v. Amoco PowerPoint

October 11

Cost of Completion Measure

Reading: Peevyhouse v. Garland Goal

tutorials: Remedies 9, Remedies 10, Remedies 11

Peevyhouse v. Garland Coal PowerPoint
Ways of measuring value

October 13--no class

October 14--no class

October 18


Reading: Osteen v. Johnson

Case tutorial: Osteen v. Johnson

tutorials: Remedies 13, Remedies 14, Remedies 15

Restitution PowerPoint

October 20

Material Breach

Tutorial: Remedies 16

Reading: K & G Construction v. Harris

K and G construction PowerPoint
Review Questions PowerPoint

October 21


Reading: Walker & Co. v. Harrison

Walker and Co. v. Harrison PowerPoint

Tutorial: Remedies 17,

Rescission PowerPoint

Excuse of Performance

Cure PowerPoint
Excuse 1

Reading: UCC 2-508, UCC 2-601, UCC 2-612

A 2-508 example: 2015 exam and answer key

2015 exam 2015 exam answer key

October 25


Reading: Hochster v. De La Tour

Hochster v. De La Tour PowerPoint

Tutorial: Excuse 2

Reading: Hathaway v. Sabin

Reading: UCC 2-609

Sowle Brill virus hypothetical
Sowle Brill snowstorm hypothetical


Tutorial: Excuse 3

Reading: UCC 2-608, 2-612

Hathaway v. Sabin and UCC 2-609 PowerPoint

October 27


Reading: Taylor v. Caldwell

Tutorial Excuse 4

Reading: Transatlantic Financing v. U. S.


Reading: Krell v. Henry

Tutorial: Excuse 5

Taylor v. Caldwell PowerPoint
Impracticability and frustration PowerPoint
Impracticability and Frustration: Information and Control

October 28

Mutual Mistake

Reading: Griffith v. Brymer

Tutorial: Excuse 6

Mutual Mistake, Griffith v. Brymer

November 1

Assigning the Risk

Reading: Sherwood v. Walker, Wood v. Boynton

Sherwood v. Walker, Wood v. Boynton PowerPoint

Tutorial: Excuse 7

Unilateral Mistake

tutorial: Excuse 8

Reading: Elsinore Union School District v. Kastoroff

Unilateral mistake PowerPoint

Duress and Unconscionability

Tutorial: Excuse 9, Duress

Tutorial: Excuse 10, Unconscionability

Reading: Henningsen v. Bloomfield Motors

Unconscionability PowerPoint
Unconscionability hypos

November 3

Offer and Acceptance

Definitions of Offer and Acceptance

Tutorials: Offer and Acceptance 1

Offer and Acceptance 2

Reading: Lefkowitz v. Minne. Surplus Store

Traditional offer and acceptance PowerPoint

The Manner of Acceptance

tutorial: Offer and Acceptance 3

Reading: Davis v. Jacoby, Klockner v. Green

Manner of Acceptance

November 4

Duration of Offers: Termination and Revocation

Mostly via the tutorials

No reading

tutorial: Offer and Acceptance 4

Irrevocable Offers

Reading: Petterson v. Pattberg

tutorial: Offer and Acceptance 5

Reading: Drennan v. Star Paving Co.

Revokabiity and irrevocability PowerPoint

November 8

The Mailbox Rule

tutorial: Offer and Acceptance 6

Reading: Lewis v. Browning

Mailbox rule PowerPoint

The Mirror-Image Rule

Reading: Ardente v. Horan

Mirror image rule PowerPoint

Tutorial: Offer and Acceptance 7

Reading: Poel v. Brunswick-Balke-Collender

Poel v. Brunswick-Balke-Collender

November 10

UCC 2-207

Reading:UCC 2-207

Tutorial: UCC 2-207

UCC 2-207 PowerPoint
Sowle and Santana hypothetical

Silence As Acceptance

Tutorial: Offer and Acceptance 8

Silence as Acceptance PowerPoint

November 11

Promissory Estoppel As A Cause Of Action

Reading: Hoffman v. Red Owl Stores

tutorial: Offer and Acceptance 9

Promissory estoppel as a cause of action PowerPoint
Review: 4 PowerPoint
Review: the 2014 exam

November 15

Written Contracts, Parol Evidence

Statute of Frauds

Reading: Notes on the Statute of Frauds

Review: 4 PowerPoint

Basic Parol Evidence Rule

Reading: Mitchill v. Lath, UCC 2-202

tutorial: Parol Evidence 1

Basic Parol Evidence Rule PowerPoint

November 17

Complete Integration and Scope

Complete integration and scope PowerPoint
Sowle shoes
Cirque du Sowle review

Tutorials: Parol Evidence 2, Parol Evidence 3

Reading: Lee v. Seagram & Sons

November 18

Entire Agreement Clauses and Contradictions

tutorial: Parol Evidence 4

2014 exam (the essay questions at the end

November 22

Interpreting Written Agreements

Using parol evidence to interpret written agreements: PowerPoint

tutorial: Parol Evidence 6

Reading: Dannan Realty v. Harris

Tutorials only

Course of Dealing, Course of Performance, Trade Usage

tutorial: Parol Evidence 5

Dannan Realty v. Harris PowerPoint
2011 exam for review

November 29

Review no reading

Old exams and answer keys

Exam Answer Key
2018 Exam Answer key
2017 Exam Answer key
2016 Exam Answer key

Answer keys

2008 2015

Sample answer

2009 exam 2009 sample answer
Overview of possible exam topics
PowerPoint: 2021 Review
2020 Exam

Sample A, B, C, D answers with commentary

The question

A answer

B answer

C answer

D answer